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In 1992, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC for short) was introduced. Since then, this procedure has been used to determine the fuel consumption and emission values of vehicles. However, the conditions of this laboratory test have always contained disadvantages in determining realistic consumption and emission values.
Therefore by fall 2018, a new driving cycle called WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure) is to replace the NEDC step by step.
This laboratory test will also be supplemented by an emissions test that measures pollutants directly on the
road: RDE (Real Driving Emissions).
MORE REALISTIC CONSUMPTION AND EMISSION VALUES THANKS TO MORE REALISTIC TEST CONDITIONS.
WLTP is a new legally binding test procedure for all car manufacturers to determine figures for exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. By approximating the test conditions to those of the real world,
WLTP will deliver more practically relevant values. One of the changes is a significantly longer test duration (30 instead of 20 minutes) as well as redefined, significantly higher test speeds.
To obtain a more precise determination of CO2 emissions, the new test procedure will include not only standard equipment options – as was previously the case – but also all special equipment options of a vehicle. This will produce within the communication two values for each type of vehicle: the lowest and highest possible standard consumption value according to the equipment options. In the case of a specific vehicle configuration, however, the individual standard value can be indicated directly.
Thanks to WLTP, you will be able to better assess a vehicle’s consumption and CO2 emissions in future. As these values will be measured more realistically than before, higher consumption and CO2 figures can be expected for vehicles with combustion engines. In the case of electric vehicles, the electric range will decrease.
MINI is already working on the transition to the new test procedure and is preparing its product portfolio step by step with new vehicles, new engine versions or technical revisions. This will enable complete WLTP conformity to be assured for the entire fleet of the BMW Group.
From September 2018, all automobile manufacturers throughout the EU as well as in Switzerland and Turkey will be legally obliged to produce only vehicles that have been tested in accordance with the WLTP procedure. The transition within the markets will depend on the respective national legislation. However, by December 2020, all countries that adopt the EU legislation for the approval of vehicles must indicate WLTP values for all vehicles.
“THE NEW TEST WILL ENSURE THAT LAB MEASUREMENTS BETTER REFLECT THE ON-ROAD PERFORMANCE OF A CAR.”*
– European Automobile Manufacturers Association
WLTP COMPARED WITH NEDC.
These are the specific differences between the old and new test procedure.
Time spent stationary
Low, Medium, High, Extra high, (Combined); (plus “City” for electric vehicles and vehicles with plug-in hybrid drivetrain)
||Average: 34 km/h Maximum: 120 km/h||Average: 46.6 km/h Maximum: 131 km/h|
||20–30° C Cold engine start||14° C (tested at 23° C corrected for 14° C) Cold engine start|
Special equipment options
Not taken into consideration
All equipment options are considered in terms of their influence on aerodynamics, weight and rolling resistance.
RESTRICTION OF POLLUTANT VALUES ON THE ROAD.
In addition to WLTP, RDE (Real Driving Emissions) will also be compulsory for all vehicle manufacturers from September 2018. In these RDE tests, the pollutant emissions such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are measured directly on the road. This method determines average emission values that can be expected during everyday driving.
In order to further reduce these pollutant values, MINI employs various technologies for reducing exhaust emission in its models: measures include BluePerformance with SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and particulate filters in diesel vehicles as well as particulate filters in petrol vehicles. In this way, MINI is able to comply with the low threshold limit values of the EU6c exhaust emissions standard, which is compulsory for all new vehicles as from fall 2018. The EU6c exhaust emissions standard prescribes lower limits for petrol-engine vehicles compared to EU6b. The same limits apply for diesel-engine vehicles within the cycle for both EU6b and EU6c.
FALLING VALUES. INCREASING CHALLENGE.
The EU exhaust emissions standard defines the valid limits for exhaust emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter within the EU. The limits vary according to engine and type of vehicle. For the benefit of climate protection and air quality, the limits undergo increasing intensification. This confronts automobile manufacturers with new challenges.
The abbreviation WLTP stands for “Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure”.
This involves a new test procedure for a more realistic determination of fuel consumption and CO2 emission values of vehicles that will be legally binding for all vehicles as of September 2018. WLTP will replace step-by-step the previously applicable NEDC procedure.
> Further information is available here
A vehicle’s consumption and emission depend on driving style. This is why driving data have been compiled for WLTP around the world. These data were used to define 4 representative phases with different average speeds: low, medium, high and extra high. Within each of these phases, there are different intensities of acceleration, braking and stopping in order to depict situations with a relevance to everyday driving style. The combination of these phases then results in the driving cycle.
MINI is already working on the transition to the new test procedure and is preparing its product portfolio step-by-step with new vehicles, new engine versions or technical revisions. This will enable complete WLTP conformity to be assured for the entire fleet of the BMW Group.
Thanks to WLTP, you will have an even better means of assessing how high the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the vehicle may be on average. At the same time, however, more realistic values will also mean higher consumption and CO2 values for vehicles with combustion engines and a lower electric range for electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids).
> Further information is available here
The abbreviation RDE stands for “Real Driving Emissions”. This is a new procedure for determining pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and particulate number. The crucial feature is that measurement takes place on the road under realistic driving conditions and not in the laboratory. A device known as a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS for short) is attached to the exhaust of the test vehicle for this purpose.
> Further information is available here
Euro 6 is the name of the current exhaust emission standard for pollutants. It defines lower maximum values for particulate number and nitrogen oxide emissions than EU5. From fall 2018, the EU6c emission standard will become compulsory, and in comparison to EU6b it specifies even lower limits for the content of particulate number in petrol-engine vehicles. The same threshold limit values apply for diesel-engine vehicles within the cycle for both EU6b and EU6c.
So that the exhaust emission values of a vehicle can be further reduced, liquid ammonia called AdBlue is fed into diesel engines. This reacts with the nitrogen oxides and reduces them accordingly. What remains is water, nitrogen and CO2.
MINI uses BluePerformance technology to reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions of its vehicles even further. This technology allows the emissions performance of the diesel engine to be further optimised. In addition to the diesel particulate filter and NOx storage catalytic converter, in some models the SCR catalytic converter (SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction) with AdBlue injection guarantees a significant reduction in nitrogen oxides contained in the exhaust gases.
The particle filter is a measure for reducing particulate matter present in diesel engines, and more recently also for petrol engines.
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